The Monroe Doctrine proclaimed that just as the United States would abstain from intervening in Europe (a promise not kept), it would also prevent Europeans from intervening in the Americas. As implemented, it became a rationale for the U.S. government to keep order in its own backyardeven against internal change seen as contrary to its interests or the interest of politically connected American firms. Consequently, Latin America has been the scene of repeated (and often unsuccessful) U.S. military intervention, in places such as Chile, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama. In recent years, the war on drugs has furnished rationalizations for intervention in Colombia, Panama, and Peru. Nonmilitary intervention, including military assistance and foreign aid, was common throughout the region.
This longstanding policy of assuring the existence of friendly regimes and access to resources has cost the people throughout the Americas dearly in money and freedom. It has also guaranteed a stream of military and political crises to which a beefed-up U.S. government could respond, accumulating even more power in the process.
Throughout the 20th century, U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America moved largely between two poles: direct intervention and condescendence. Intervention spans everything from military occupations in the early part of the century to the current war on drugs in the Andean region. Condescendence had its pillars in Franklin Roosevelts Good Neighbor Policy, John F. Kennedys Alliance For Progress, foreign aid and International Monetary Fund (IMF) bailouts in the 1990s. These various policies failed to strengthen civil society in Latin America vis-a-vis the various Governments or political factions they were supposed to help or undermine, and made it difficult for Latin Americans to distinguish between authentic capitalist reform and crony capitalism of the sort that keeps recurring throughout the region. None of this should make us lose sight of the fact the the primary responsibility for Latin Americas backwardness lies with Latin Americans themselves.
Argentina: Argentina enjoyed a large measure of freedom between the 1850s and the 1920s, a period which brought prosperity to that country. Government interventionof which Juan Perons regime was a symbolsubsequently undermined Argentinas freedom and prosperity.
Alberdi, Juan Bautista. Bases y puntos de partida para la constitución política de la República Argentina, Buenos Aires, Edición Plus Ultra (852) 1996.
Grondona, Mariano. Las Condiciones Culturales del Desarrollo Economico: Haria una Teoria del Desarrollo. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ariel Planeta, 1999.
Katra, William H. The Argentine Generation of 1837: Echeverria, Alberdi, Sarmiento, Mitre. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.
Little, Walter. Party and State in Peronist Argentina, Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 53, No. 4 (November 1973).
Benegas Lynch, Jr., Alberto. Fundamentos de Análisis Económico. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 1986 (novena edición).
Naipaul, V.S. The Return of Eva Perón: With the Killings in Trinidad. New York, Vintage, 1981.
Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino. Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants, or Civilization and Barbarism. New York: Free Press. 1970.
Brazil: Brazils peaceful independence and institutional stability during much of the 19th century spared that country many of the problems experienced by the rest of Latin America. Failure to engage in significant reform, however, preserved a system of heavy concentration of property and political authoritarianism. Economic nationalism in the 20th century, while spurring industrialization, saw the gigantic growth of the State. Insufficient and flawed liberalization was subsequently undertaken under military dictatorship. Recently, under democratic governments, despite some privatization, Brazil has failed to tackle its economic heritagecounting 60 million poor people.
Baer, Werner. The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995.
Baer, Werner and Annibal V. Villela. Privatization and the Changing Role of the State in Brazil, in Essays on Privatization in Latin America: The Changing Roles of the Public and Private Sectors, edited by Werner Baer and Melissa Birch. New York, Praeger, 1994.
Black, Jan Knippers. United States Penetration of Brazil. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977.
Jaguaribe, Helio. Brasil: Reforma ou Caos. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1989.
Skidmore, Thomas. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. Be Radical, Lula, San Francisco Chronicle, November 11, 2002.
Chile: Chile has gone farther than other Latin American countries in scaling back the scope of government intervention, although much remains to be done. The economic liberalization reforms during General Augusto Pinochets regime have been preserved by civilian successors. Meanwhile, those people responsible for the government terror, mass murders, and other crimes under Pinochet have yet to be held accountable.
Falcoff, Mark. Modern Chile, 1970-1989: A Critical History. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1989.
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Colombia: In the aftermath of repressive colonial and authoritarian rule, the assault of Marxist guerrillas and drug cartels has only served to undermine Colombias institutions and civilian life. Meanwhile, U.S. interventionism, including the war on drugs, has made matters even worse.
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Foner, Philip S. The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1898, 2 Vol. New York, Monthly Review Press, 1972.
Garthoff, Raymond L. Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1989.
Hinckle, Warren and William Turner. The Fish is Red: The Story of The Secret War Against Castro. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
Millis, Walter. The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with Spain. Chicago: Ivan R Dee, April 1989.
Morgan, H. Wayne. Americas Road to Empire: The War with Spain and Overseas Expansion.
Morley, Morris H. Imperial State and Revolution: The United States and Cuba, 1952-1986. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Offner, John. An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba.
Smith, Robert Freeman. The United States and Cuba: Business and Diplomacy, 1917-1960. New York: Bookman Associates, 1961
Sumner, William Graham. The Conquest of the United States by Spain. Chicago, Ill.: Henry Regnery, 1965.
Currency Issues: Argentinas half attempt at creating a currency board proved impotent against exorbitant public spending. Bolder solutions have been proposed to stop politicians from debasing the currency.
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Drug War: The U.S.-led war on drugs has not reduced the supply of drugs. Instead, it has strengthened authoritarian rule and created widespread corruption in the Andean countries and undermined their economies.
Capenter, Ted Galen. Bad Neighbor Policy: Washingtons Futile War on Drugs in Latin America. New York: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2003.
Marshall, Jonathan, Peter Dale Scott, and Jane Hunter. The Iran-Contra Connection: Secret Teams and Covert Operations in the Reagan Era. Boston: South End Press, 1987. Focus on Central America and Iran. Deals with military, private and Israeli intelligence operations as well as CIA.
Scott, Peter Dale. What Will Congress Do About New CIA-Drug Revelations?, San Francisco Chronicle, June 19, 2000.
Scott, Peter Dale, and Jonathan Marshall. Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
Smith, Peter, ed. Drug Policy in the Americas: Strategies for Supply Reductions. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.
Andreski, Stanislav. Parasitism and Subversion: The Case of Latin America. New York: Schocken Books, 1969.
Bernecker, Walter L. and Hans Werner Tobler. Development and Underdevelopment. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1993.
Campos, Roberto de Oliveira. Reflection on Latin American Development. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1967.
Chriszt, Michael. All Pain, No Gain? Reform Fatigue and the Long-Term Outlook in Latin America, EconSouth, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 2000.
Evans, Peter. Dependent Development. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979.
Frank, Andre G. Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969.
Haber, Stephen, ed. How Latin America Fell Behind: Essays on the Economic History of Brazil and Mexico, 1800-1914. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Harrison, Lawrence E. Underdevelopment Is a State of Mind. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 2000.
Karst, Kenneth L. and Kenneth S. Rosen. Law and Development in Latin America. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1975.
Lamounier, Bolivar and Edmar Bacha. Democracy and Economic Reform in Brazil in A Precarious Balance: Democracy and Economic Reforms in Latin America and Eastern Europe edited by Joan Nelson. Washington, D.C.: Overseas Development Council, 1994.
Lieuwen, Edwin. Generals vs. Presidents: Neomilitarism in Latin America. New York: Praeger, 1964.
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McQuerry, Elizabeth. In Search of Better Reform in Latin America, EconSouth, Q2 (2002), pp. 14-19.
Packenham, Robert. The Dependency Movement. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Powelson, John P. and Richard Stock. The Peasant Betrayed: Agriculture and Land Reform in the Third World. Washinton D.C.: Cato Institute, 1990.
Roberts, Paul Craig and Karen LaFollette Araujo. The Capitalist Revolution in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Urquidi, Victor L. Free Trade and Economic Integration in Latin America. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, First Edition, 1964.
Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. A Capitalist Revolution in Latin America?: review of the book The Capitalist Revolution in Latin America by Paul Craig Roberts and Karen LaFollette Araujo, Critical Review, Vol.12, Nos.1-2 (Winter-Spring 1998).
. Latin American Liberalism: A Mirage?, The Independent Review, Vol. VI, No. 3 (Winter 2002), pp. 325-343.
Veliz, Claudio. The Centralist Tradition in Latin America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980.
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Alberdi, Juan Bautista. The Life and Industrial Labors of William Wheelwright in South America. Boston: A. William & Company, 1877.
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Bahbah, Bishara. Israel and Latin America: The Military Connection. New York: St. Martins Press, 1986.
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Barry, Tom and Deb Preusch. The Soft War: The Uses and Abuses of U.S. Economic Aid in Central America. New York: Grove, 1988.
Blum, William. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Monroe, ME: Common Courage, 1995.
Boeker, Paul. Lost Illusions: Latin Americas Struggle for Democracy as Recounted by Its Leaders. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1990).
Borón, Atilio. State, Capitalism, and Democracy in Latin America. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.
Castañeda, Jorge. Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left After The Cold War. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1993.
Chafuen, Alejandro A. Christians for Freedom: Late-Scholastic Economics. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1986.
Clissold, Stephen. Latin America: A Cultural Outline. London: Huchinson University Library, 1965.
Cockcroft, James. Latin America: History, Politics, and U.S. Policy, 2nd Edition. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers, 1997.
Collier, David, ed. The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.
de la Torre, Armando. El Marco Juridico del Libre Mercado: Algunas Reflexiones. El Salvador: Instituto Salvadoreno de Estudios Politicos y Sociales, 1993.
de Madariaga, Salvador. The Rise of the Spanish American Empire. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1975.
Dealy, Glen Caudill. The Public Man: An Interpretation of Latin America and Other Catholic Countries. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1977.
Diskin, Martin, ed. Trouble in Our Backyard: Central America and the United States in the Eighties. New York, Pantheon, 1983.
Djankov, Simeon, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes and Andrei Schleifer. The Regulation of Entry, Harvard Institute of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, 2000.
Falcoff, Mark. A Culture of Its Own: Taking Latin America Seriously. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1998.
Feder, Ernest. The Rape of the Peasantry: Latin Americas Landholding System. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
Fitch, John S. The Armed Forces and Democracy in Latin America. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Gerassi, John. Great Fear in Latin America. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1965.
Gleijeses, Piero. Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States. Princeton: New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1991.
Goodman, John C. and Ramona Marotz-Baden, ed. Fighting the War of Ideas in Latin America. Dallas: National Center for Policy Analysis, 1990.
Green, David. The Containment of Latin America: A History of the Myths and Tealities of the Good Neighbor Policy. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1971.
Hamilton, Bernice. Political Thought in Sixteenth Century Spain. New York: Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1963.
Hanke, Lewis. All Mankind Is One: A Study of the Disputation Between Bartolom de Las Casas and Juan Gins de Sepulveda in 1550 on the Intellectual and Religious Capacity of the American Indians. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1974. The early pioneers of classical liberalism in the Spanish School of Salamanca not only developed advanced economic theories of markets but the ethics of individual rights.
Haring, Clarence. The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1947.
Harrison, Lawrence E. The Pan-American Dream: Do Latin America's Cultural Values Discourage True Partnership With the United States and Canada. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
Harrison, Lawrence E. and Samuel P. Huntington, ed. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Hojman, David J. The Political Economy of Recent Conversions to Market Economies in Latin America, Journal of Latin American Studies, 26 (1994).
Huntington, Samuel P. Civil-Military Relations in Argentina, Chile, and Peru, Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 112, No. 3: 453 (1997).
Kwitny, Jonathan. Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World. New York: St. Martins Press, 1984.
LaFeber, Walter. Inevitable Revolutions: The United States and Central America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1993.
Langguth, A.J. Hidden Terrors. New York: Pantheon, 1978.
Lowenthal, Abraham F., ed. Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
Lynch, John. The Spanish American Revolutions, 1808-1826. New York: W.W. Norton, 1973.
Maechling, Jr, Charles. The Murderous Mind of the Latin American Military, Los Angeles Times, March 18, 1982.
Mander, John. Static Society: The Paradox of Latin America. London: Gollancz, 1969.
Mendieta, Salvador. La enfermedad de Centroamérica. Barcelona: Tipografía Maucci, 1936.
Mendoza, Plinio A., Carlos A. Montaner and Alvaro Vargas Llosa. Guide to the Perfect Latin American Idiot. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 2000.
Montaner, Carlos Alberto. Las raíces torcidas de América Latina. Barcelone: Plaza Y Janes, 2001.
Novak, Michael. The Hemisphere of Liberty: A Philosophy of the Americas. Washington D.C.: AEI Press, 1990.
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Piñera, José. Liberating Workers: The World Pensions Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 2001.
Rangel, Carlos. Third-World Ideology and Western Reality: Manufacturing Political Myth. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1986.
Schmitz, David F. Thank God They're On Our Side: The United States and Right-Wing Dictatorships, 1921-1965. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Schoultz, Lars G. Human Rights and United States Policy Toward Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.
. National Security and United States Policy Toward Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Spalding, Karen. Kurakas and Commerce: A Chapter in the Evolution of Andean Society, Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 53, No. 4 (November 1973).
Vargas Llosa, Mario. A Fish in the Water: A Memoir. New York: Penguin USA, 1995.
Watner, Carl. All Mankind Is One: The Libertarian Tradition in Sixteenth Century Spain, Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. VIII, No. 2 (Summer 1987), pp. 193-309.
Whitaker, Arthur P. Latin America and the Enlightenment. Ithaca, N.Y.: Great Sale Books, 1961.
Wiarda, Howard J. The Soul of Latin America: The Cultural and Political Tradition. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.
Williams, Robert. Export Agriculture and the Crisis in the Central America. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Guatemala: Guatemala enjoys a rich cultural heritage as the home of a large population of Maya descent. For much of its independent history, it was not able to break away from a succession of strongmen and military rulers and, in the latter part of the 20th century, Marxist guerrillas seeking to impose state socialism. U.S. intervention in 1954 helped strengthen military rule, which directly or indirectly held the country in its grip until well into the 1980s. When democracy was established, it was not accompanied by deep political and economic reform. The resurgence of a party led by a former military dictator has postponed hopes of such reforms and brought corruption back on the agenda.
Immerman, Richard H. The C.I.A. in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982.
Jonas, Susanne. The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991.
Perez de Anton, Francisco. Etica de la Libertad. Guatemala City, Guatemala: Libro Libre.
. La Libre Empresa: Una Introduccion a Los Fundamentos Eticos, Juridicos y Economicos. Guatemala City, Guatemala: Editorial Academica Centroamericana, 1979.
. El Poso de la Espuma: Prosas Con Prisa y Cronicas Sin Fecha. Guatemala City, Guatemala: Editorial Piedra Santa, 1994.
Schlesinger, Stephen and Stephen Kinzer. Bitter Fruit: The Story of the American Coup in Guatemala. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.
de Soto, Hernando. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
. The Other Path: The Economic Answer to Terrorism. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
Mexico: Mexico is currently the United States second most important trading partner but its potential remains unrealized. Many Mexican public figures have exposed the countrys flawed political institutions, and reform has stalled after an impressive period that saw the end of rule since 1929 by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI).
Calvert, Peter. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1968.
de la Torre, Armando and Sergio Arellano Berumen. La Educacion: El Antidoto Contra el Subdesarrollo. Mexico City: Institucion Politecnica Nacional, Centro de Investigacion de Ciencias Administrativas, 1998.
Haley, P. Edward. Revolution and Intervention: The Diplomacy of Taft and Wilson in Mexico. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970.
Krauze, Enrique. Mexico, A Biography of Power: A History of Modern Mexico, 1810-1996. New York: Perennial, 1998.
Oppenheimer, Andres. Bordering on Chaos: Mexico's Roller-Coaster Journey to Prosperity. New York: Time Warner, 1998.
Paz, Octavio. El ogro filantrópico. Mexico City: Joaquín Mortiz, 1979.
Smith, Robert Freeman. The United States and Revolutionary Nationalism in Mexico. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
Nicaragua: In few countries has U.S. foreign policy aroused so many passions, going back to the 1930s. During the Cold War, Nicaragua became a bloody theater of war and atrocities in the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Sandinista regime gave way to democracy in 1990, but the policies of socialism and a culture of corruption that reached its peak with the recent government of the Liberal Party have kept Nicaragua from developing its potential.
Walker, Thomas, ed. Reagan versus the Sandinistas: The Undeclared War on Nicaragua. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1987.
Panama: The Panama Canal is one of the earliest symbols of U.S. interventionism in Latin America in the 20th century. After failed attempts by the French to build the canal, President Theodore Roosevelt bought the construction rights and pressured Colombia to accept a $10 million offer for the land strip across the isthmus. When Colombia refused, a local revolt backed by a U.S. battleship and a detachment of U.S. Marines forced Panama to break away from Colombia. Roosevelt immediately guaranteed Panamas independence and leased the canal zone in perpetuity for $10 million and an annuity of $250,000. He also secured other sites for defense and seized sanitary control of Panama and Colon City. Throughout most of the 20th century, the Panama Canal remained a focal point of U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America. Most of the Panamas politics came to be defined in terms of support or opposition to foreign interference and control, a factor that contributed to strengthening authoritarian tendencies on both sides of the divide. It would take almost a century for the canal to revert to Panamanian control.
Buckley, Kevin. Panama: The Whole Story. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
Eland, Ivan. Ghosts of the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, October 12, 1999.
. Panama Canal Stirs Cold Warriors Fears, Journal of Commerce, October 19, 1999.
Falcoff, Mark. Panama's Canal: What Happens When the U.S. Gives A Small Country What It Wants. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1998.
Marina, William F. From Rape to Seduction: Panama and the Shifting Strategy of the American Empire, Reason (January 1978), pp. 33-50.
Storey, Moorfield. The Recognition of Panama. Boston: George H. Ellis, 1903.
Prescott, William H. History of the Conquest of Peru. London: George Routledge, 1847.
Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. The Madness of Things Peruvian: Democracy Under Siege. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
Revolution: The United States has pursued a long-standing policy of covert and military interventionism in Latin American affairs in order to impose proxy regimes loyal to U.S. interests. Despite being fueled in response to the widespread corruption, hardship, and repression of oligarghic rule, most subsequent revoluntinary movements in Latin America have brought economic and social misery to the citizenry as a result of a misguided quest for state socialism and a campaign of mass terrorism. The effects have only compounded domestic and international support for authoritarian solutions and crony capitalism.
Barnet, Richard J. Intervention and Revolution: The United States in the Third World. New York: New American Library, 1972.
Hagopian, Mark N. The Phenomenon of Revolution. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1975.
LaFeber, Walter. Inevitable Revolutions: The United States and Central America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1993.
Williams, William Appleman. America Confronts a Revolutionary World. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1976.
U.S. Empire: Its economic and military might places the United States in a unique position vis-à-vis the rest of the world. Its efforts to impose its will across Latin America and other less-developed nations have had entirely counterproductive results and created many enemies.
Chomsky, Noam. Intervention in Vietnam and Central America: Parallels and Differences, Monthly Review, 37, 4 (September 1985), pp. 1-29.
Haring, Clarence H. South America Looks at the U.S. New York: The Macmilan Company, 1928.
Kwitny, Jonathan. Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World. New York: St. Martins Press, 1984.
Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994.
Musicant, Ivan. The Banana Wars: A History of United States Military Intervention in Latin America From the Spanish-American War to the Invasion of Panama. London: Macmillan, 1990.
OShaughnessy, Hugh. Grenada: An Eyewitness Account of the U.S. Invasion and the Caribbean History That Provoked It. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1984.
Pastor, Robert A. and Jorge Castañeda. Limits to Friendship: The United States and Mexico. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1988.
Pratt, Julius W. A History of United States Foreign Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.
Raico, Ralph. Review of the book Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World since 1776 by Walter A. McDougall, The Independent Review, Vol. III, No. 2 (Fall 1998), pp. 273-278.
Rangel, Carlos. The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship With The United States. New York: Harcourt, 1977.
Rodó, José Enrique. Ariel. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1991.
Scheman, Ronald. The Alliance For Progress: A Retrospective. New York: Westport and London, Praeger, 1988.
Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. Back from the DeadWith U.S. Help, San Francisco Chronicle, August 18, 2002.
Williams, William Appleman. Empire as a Way of Life: An Essay on the Causes and Character of America's Present Predicament Along With a Few Thoughts About an Alternative. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Venezuela: Venezuela is a classic example of how statism and mercantilism can squander a nations wealth. After the 1930s, the country experienced an oil-based boom that put it well ahead of most of its neighbors. By the 1960s, despite ever-increasing oil production, the nation began its decline. Democratic politics came hand in hand with interventionism and corruption. More than $300 billion (U.S.) worth of oil have been wasted since then. Today, Venezuela is in the hands of an authoritarian government and grinding poverty.
Ellner, Steve and Daniel Hellinger, eds. Venezuelan Politics in the Chavez Era: Class, Polarization and Conflict. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003.
Gomez, Emeterio. Salidas Para una Economia Petrolera. Publicaciones CELAT, Editorial Futuro, 1993.
Sabino, Carlos. De Como un Estado Rico Nos Ilevo a la Pobreza: Hacia una Nueva Politica Social. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Panapo, 1994.
. Empleo y Gasto Publico en Venezuela: Una Aproximacion al Estudio de la Influencia del Estado Sobre la Estructura Social. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Pampa, 1988.
Sabino, Carlos and Jesus Rodriguez. Social Security in Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: CEDICE, 1992.
Uslar Pietri, Arturo. A Future for Latin America. Tempe, Ariz.: Center For Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1974.
. Perfiles de America Latina: Ocho Visiones Venezolanas. Caracas, Venezuela: Monte Avila Editores Latinoamericana, 1992.
World Bank and International Monetary Fund: Many of the policies that have contributed to Latin Americas stagnation, instability and misery have been inspired or supported by multilateral bodies such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Caufield, Catherine. Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations. New York: Henry Holt & Company, Inc, 1997.
Reynolds, Alan. Imperial Rule: Distant and Out of Touch, the IMF Ruins Economies Great and Small, National Review, November 9, 1998.
Schuler, Kurt. A Currency Board Beats IMF Rx, Wall Street Journal, February 18, 1998.
Wolf, Jr., Charles. Review of the book Masters of Illusion: The World Bank and the Poverty of Nations by Catherine Caufield, The Independent Review, Vol. II, No. 4 (Spring 1998), pp. 617-619.