Crises and Power
U.S. Foreign Policy
   Development & Aid
   Regional Influence
      Latin America
      Middle East
      North America

Quotes on Power

About the book Crisis and Leviathan

Center on Peace & Liberty Europe



The United States deployed troops to Europe in 1917 to defeat Imperial Germany during World War I, and then again, after the vindictive Treaty of Versailles, to defeat Nazi Germany in 1942 during World War II. One palpable result of Woodrow Wilson’s and Franklin Roosevelt’s interventions on the continent was the occupation of eastern Europe and half of Germany by the Soviet Union, a U.S. ally against Adolph Hitler. That occupation, which would last 45 years, was ratified at the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences with President Roosevelt and President Harry Truman, respectively, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.The Soviet presence provided justification for American troops to stay in Europe to bolster the new NATO alliance and ostensibly to contain the communist power. In the name of prosecuting the Cold War, the U.S. initiated the Marshall Plan, an American aid program to rebuild western Europe; financial assistance to Greece (the Truman Doctrine) to protect it from Soviet hegemony; and continuing open and covert intervention.

Despite the Cold War rationale, the U.S. failed to bring home its troops after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact bloc, 1989-91. Rather, it has expanded NATO to include former Warsaw Pact nations. With a new mission being found each time the old one evaporated, the policy of maintaining influence in Europe seemed unrelated to any specific threat to the security of the American people. The policy perhaps saved Europeans from the monetary cost of keeping large armies, but that cost was shifted to Americans. The consequent impact on individual liberty was rationalized as necessary to keep the United States and its allies safe. Yet as time goes by, this looks less and less persuasive.

If unrelated to American security, what is the object of the policy? More likely, it is intended to remind the Europeans that the United States is the senior partner in the leadership of “the free world” (Europeans troops are not stationed in the United States), to provide bases closer to geopolitical “trouble spots,” such as the Middle East and Central Asia, and to “keep down” a Germany that has learned its lessons from two world wars and has been a responsible world citizen for more than 50 years.

Also, click here for Bibliography for Crisis and Leviathan.

Balkans War:

Corwin, Philip. Dubious Mandate: A Memoir of the U.N. in Bosnia, Summer 1995. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1999.

Dragnich, Alex and Slavko Todorovich. The Saga of Kosovo: Focus on Serbian-Albanian Relations. East European Monographs, 1984.

Eland, Ivan. “Even if NATO ‘Wins’ a Kosovo Ground War, It Loses,” Belleville News-Democrat, May 27, 1999.

—. “Kosovo Intervention Highlights European Free Riding,” The Tocqueville Connection, May 11, 1999.

—. “NATO Marching to Lose-Lose Situation,” South China Morning Post, May 29, 1999.

—. “Serbia’s Revolt: U.S. Role Hasn’t Helped,” USA Today, October 6, 2000.

Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land. Rockford, IL: Chronicles Press, 2002.

Glenny, Misha. Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War. New York, Penguin Books, 1996.

Hammond, Philip. Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis. London: Pluto Press, 2000.

Hayden, Robert. Blueprint for a House Divided: The Constitutional Logic of the Yugoslav Conflicts. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Holbrooke, Richard. To End a War. New York: Modern Library; 1999.

Johnstone, Diana. Fool’s Crusades: Yugoslavia, NATO and Western Delusions. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2003.

Lloyd, Anthony. My War Gone By, I Miss It So. New York: Penguin USA, 2001.

Parenti, Michael. To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia. New York: Verso Books, 2002.

Raimondo, Justin. Into the Bosnian Quagmire: The Case Against U.S. Intervention in the Balkans. Burlingame, Calif.: America First Books, 1996.

Taylor, Scott. Diary of an Uncivil War: The Violent Aftermath of the Kosovo Conflict. Esprit de Corps Books, 2002.

—. Inat: Images of Serbia and the Kosovo Conflict. Esprit de Corps Books, 2000.

Cold War:

Donnelly, Desmond. Struggle for the World: The Cold War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965. History of the Cold War from 1917 to 1965.

Halle, Louis J. The Cold War as History. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Lukacs, John. A New History of the Cold War. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1966.

Mee, Charles. Meeting at Potsdam. New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1976.

Morris, Charles R. Iron Destinies, Lost Opportunities: The Arms Race between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., 1945-1987. New York: HarperCollins, 1988.

Rothbard, Murray N. “Myths of the Cold War,” Rampart Journal of Individualist Thought, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Summer 1966), pp. 65-76.

Sherwin, Martin J. A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2003.

West, Richard. Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1995.

Collapse of the Soviet Bloc:

Conquest, Robert. Reflections on a Ravaged Century. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2001.

Layne, Christopher and Benjamin Schwarz. “Dubious Anniversary: Kosovo One Year Later,” Policy Analysis No. 373. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, June 10, 2000.

Lohmann, Susanne. “Why Did the East Germans Rebel?,” The Independent Review, Vol. II, No. 2, (Fall 1997), pp. 303-310.

Maltsev, Yuri. “Review of the book Dismantling Utopia: How Information Ended the Soviet Union by Scott Shane,” The Independent Review, Vol. I, No. 1 (Spring 1996), pp. 142-146.

Opp, Karl-Dieter. “Explaining Revolutions from Below: East Germany in 1989,” The Independent Review, Vo. III, No. 1 (Summer 1998), pp. 91-102.

Pejovich, Svetozar. “From Socialism to the Market Economy: Postwar West Germany versus Post-1989 East Bloc,” The Independent Review, Vol. VI, No. 1 (Summer 2001), pp. 27-39.

—. “Law, Tradition, and the Transition in Eastern Europe,” The Independent Review, Vol. II, No. 2 (Fall 1997), pp. 243-254.

Roberts, Paul Craig. Alienation and the Soviet Economy: The Collapse of the Socialist Era (rev. ed.). New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers for The Independent Institute, 1990.

Wedel, Janine R. “U.S. Assistance for Market Reforms: Foreign Aid Failures in Russia and the Former Soviet Bloc,” The Independent Review, Vol. IV, No. 3 (Winter 2000), pp. 393-417.


Barnes, Harry Elmer. The Genesis of the World War and Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1929.

Bresciani-Turroni, Costantino. The Economics of Inflation: A Study of Currency Depreciation in Post-War Germany. New York: Augustus Kelley, 1976.

Diggins, John P. Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Eland, Ivan. “Enlargement or Largesse? NATO Expansion Will Be Mote Expensive tha Clinton Admits,” Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Winter 1998), pp. 16-36.

Gardner, Lloyd C. Spheres of Influence: The Great Powers Partition Europe, From Munich to Yalta. Chicago: Ivan Dee, 1993.

Hayek, F. A. The Road to Serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

—. The Road to Serfdom in Cartoons,” Look Magazine, April 1945.

—. Socialism and War: Essays, Documents, Reviews, ed. by Bruce Caldwell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Hazlitt, Henry. “Collectivism on Relief,” Newsweek (July 19, 1948).

—. “Dangers of Dollar Diplomacy,” Newsweek (July 12, 1948).

—. “The Future of Foreign Aid,” Newsweek (January 16, 1950).

—. “Sense Instead of Dollars,” Newsweek (March 28, 1949).

—. “Subsidizing Planned Chaos” Newsweek (June 23, 1949).

—. “The Uncalculated Risk,” Newsweek (January 5, 1948).

—. “What Are We Trying to Do,” Newsweek (February 28, 1949).

Lukacs, John. The Great Powers and Eastern Europe. New York: American Book Company, 1953.

—. Decline and Rise of Europe: A Study in Recent History, with Particular Emphasis on the Development of a European Consciousness. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1965.

Paul, Ellen Frankel. “Laissez Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Fact or Myth?”, Literature of Liberty, Vol. III, No. 4, Winter 1980.

Payne, Stanley G. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995.

Tsoucalas, Constantine. The Greek Tragedy. New York: Penguin. 1969.

von Mises, Ludwig. Omipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1944.

Western Europe:

Carpenter, Ted Galen, ed. NATO Enlargement: Illusions and Reality. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1998.

Colombatto, Enrico. “The Crisis of Europe’s Centralized Federalism: Ambiguities of a Harmonized Currency Union,” The Independent Review, Vol. IV, No. 4 (Spring 2000), pp. 533-553.

Dowd, Kevin and Richard Timberlake, Jr., ed. Money and the Nation State: The Financial Revolution, Government and World Monetary System. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers for The Independent Institute, 1997.

Eland, Ivan. “The Costs of NATO Expansion: What Are the Administration and NATO Hiding.” Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, February 3, 1998.

—. “Frying the French.” Oakland, Calif.: The Independent Institute, March 12, 2003.

—. “The High Cost of NATO Expansion: Clearing the Administration’s Smokescreen,” Policy Analysis No. 286. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, October 29, 1997.

—. “Review of the book The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present and into the 21st Century by Todd Sandler and Keith Hartley,” The Independent Review, Vol. V, No. 2 (Fall 2000), pp. 303-306..

—. “We’ve Earned a Peace Dividend,” Orange County Register, July 1998.

Engdahl, F. William. A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order. Concord, Mass.: Paul and Company, 1993.

Epstein, Julius, Operation Keelhaul: The Story of Forced Repatriation from 1944 to the Present. New York: Devin-Adair, 1973.

Garvy, George. “Keynes and the Economic Activists of Pre-Hitler Germany,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 83, No. 2 (April 1975), pp. 391-405.

Keeling, Ralph F. Gruesome Harvest: Allies’ Postwar War Against the German People. Institute of American Economics, 1947.

—. The Tragedy of Europe, 5 Vols. Appleton, Wisc.: C.C. Nelson, 1940-46.

Milward, Alan S. “Was the Marshall Plan Necessary?”, Diplomatic History, Vol. 13 (Spring 1989), pp. 231-153.

Niskanen, William. “Review of the book Dismantling the Welfare State? Reagan, Thatcher, and the Politics of Retrenchment by Paul Pierson,” Vol. II, No. 3 (Winter 1998), pp. 465-467.

Nye, John V. C. “Review of the book Democracy and International Trade: Britain, France, and the United States, 1860-1990 by Daniel Verdier,” The Independent Review, Vol. I, No. 4 (Spring 1997), pp. 611-614.

Ponting, Clive. Churchill. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1994.

Sainsbury, Keith. The Turning Point: Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill, and Chiang-Kai-Shek, 1943: The Moscow, Cairo, and Teheran Conferences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Stromberg, Roland N. Collective Security and American Foreign Policy: From the League of Nations to NATO. New York: Praeger, 1963. [Online Book]

Toland, John. Adolf Hitler, 2 Vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1982.

Wheeler-Bennett, John. The Semblance of Peace: The Political Settlement After the Second World War. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1972.

Wilmot, Chester. The Struggle for Europe. New York: Harper, 1952.

Wittner, Lawrence S. American Intervention in Greece, 1943-1949. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Yeager, Leland B. “From Gold to the Ecu: The International Monetary System in Retrospect,” The Independent Review, Vol. I, No. 1 (Spring 1996), pp. 75-99.